Laser cutting machine dust removal

With the emergence of fiber laser technology, laser cutting machines have occupied an important position in the field of sheet metal processing. During the processing of laser cutting machine workpieces, more smoke and dust will be generated due to high temperature ablation, which will pollute some precision parts on the equipment. At the same time, smoke and dust will also have an adverse effect on the health of operators. If the cutting fume is not treated, it will seriously affect the service life and cutting performance of the laser cutting machine, so the dust removal system of the laser cutting machine is particularly important.

Generally, the dust removal system device of a laser cutting machine is designed as an overall exhaust structure with a large cavity. In order to meet the environmental protection requirements, a high-power dust collector is required, which covers a large area, and the pipeline installation is complicated, which is prone to leaks and air leakage. Lead to poor ventilation effect. The smoke and dust generated by the cutting machine cannot be exhausted in time during actual work, which affects the user’s working environment.

One solution is to divide the lower part of the laser cutting machine workbench into several small chambers arranged longitudinally with equal geometric dimensions and the main suction duct at the front, which is connected to the dust collector; each small chamber There is a valve between the main suction duct, and the machine-controlled valve controls the cylinder through the inlet pipe and the outlet pipe; there is a hopper in the small room, and the two ends are welded with end plates to seal, and several ventilation holes are opened on the lower part of both sides of the hopper. Through the opening and closing of the valve, the ventilation process of the system is controlled. This method saves land and improves the dust removal effect.

The device of another solution includes the main body, the main box and the control cabinet. The dust removal cover is set to absorb all the smoke and dust generated when the laser cutting machine is working, which can ensure a clear working line of sight and improve work efficiency. The dust removal cover can also be used during work. Ensure that the residue will not splash around, protect the safety of operators, improve a layer of protection, and improve the popularity and applicability of the device.

Although the dust removal system is not the most important consideration when choosing a laser cutting machine, an efficient dust removal system is an important condition to ensure normal production and must not be ignored.

However, what high production efficiency brings is the impact on the environment. Now we are in a period of strict environmental protection investigation, especially for production-oriented enterprises. Therefore, a device with good environmental protection performance often has a great advantage. When the fiber laser cutting machine is working, it will not produce a lot of smoke and dust like traditional plasma cutting methods. The fiber laser cutting machine has a special dust removal device, which will directly transport the collected smoke to the smoke filter and purification equipment, and then discharge it after uniform filtration and purification until it reaches the standard. The dust generated by cutting is basically formed under the incision of the workpiece. Therefore, in order to save equipment investment and improve the ventilation efficiency, only the area in the process of cutting is vacuumed. There is an air outlet on the side of the fiber laser cutting machine. This kind of structure is relatively simple, and the dust removal effect is good, so it is widely used.

After extensive tests, we have come up with a set of dust suction structure that can effectively reduce the smoke and dust in the laser processing process. The mechanism includes an air purification dust collector that can effectively absorb fine particles in the airflow. The dust collector passes through a dust suction pipe with a diameter of 250mm Connected with the laser cutting machine, the air in the laser cutting machine is extracted by the dust collector through the dust suction pipe, and then the extracted air is filtered and purified, and the clean air is discharged at the same time.

At present, most laser cutting machine manufacturers on the market can design and manufacture laser dust removal systems according to the above steps. However, after field use by users, it is found that the dust removal effect of laser cutting machines is not good, and the smoke and dust generated by cutting often cannot be as expected. The situation is adsorbed and purified by the purification dust collector, and the cutting smoke visible to the naked eye is scattered in the equipment, affecting the precision transmission device in the machine tool, reducing the machining accuracy of the machine tool, and even the cutting smoke will spread to the entire workshop, threatening the safety of equipment users. health and pollute the environment.

The root cause of the above phenomenon is that although the dust collector has extracted a large amount of air in the machine tool, the extracted air has not taken away the cutting fume that we want it to take away. Therefore, even though we have spent a lot of energy designing the dust suction pipes in the machine tool, due to some design reasons and some processing and assembly reasons, the work of the dust removal system is half the effort and the dust removal effect is not ideal.

In view of the above facts, we have done a lot of experiments and concluded the following methods, which can effectively improve the dust removal efficiency of the dust removal system:

Improve the sealing performance of the dust removal system. The suction air volume provided by the dust collector is certain, so reducing the overall sealing performance of the dust removal system will inevitably increase the suction air volume of a specific suction port, thereby improving the dust removal efficiency of the system. The dust suction system consists of the following parts, an air purifier, a dust suction pipe, the dust suction pipe in the machine tool, and the controllable opening and closing air suction ports of each partition in the machine tool. The unsealed links that can affect the dust collection efficiency are mainly the sealing of the dust collection pipe itself and the sealing of each suction port. At present, the dust suction duct design of most machine tool manufacturers is to use the formed square pipe as the dust suction duct, and at the same time use it as a part of the welding fuselage, and integrate it on both sides of the fuselage when the fuselage is welded. The difficulty of this method is to ensure that the welding between the pipelines must be fully welded during welding to prevent air leakage. The sealing performance of the suction port is that the processing area needs to be divided into several partitions according to the position of the laser head, and the partitions not processed by the laser head need to be sealed.

Reduces right-angle transitions at pipe connections within machine tools. Taking the processing format of 3m×1.5m as an example, most manufacturers currently design to install pipes under the workbench on the left and right sides of the fuselage. In this way, the partition of the suction port can be divided into two sections on the left and right along the Y direction. Theoretically, it can Improve the dust collection efficiency, but this method will inevitably produce right-angled pipes in the fuselage. The right-angled pipes are not conducive to the flow of air, which will weaken the wind force of the suction port. In addition, while considering the design of the fuselage, the cross-sectional area of the pipe between the dust collector and the air inlet inside the fuselage should be increased as much as possible. A large pipe cross-section can reduce the resistance encountered when the air flows in the pipe, so that the dust collector The loss of the wind force generated by the device is minimized when it reaches the suction port.

Improve the sealing performance of the machine tool itself. Theoretically, the air finally extracted by the dust collector comes from inside the machine tool, but due to the sealing performance of the machine tool itself, the dust collection efficiency is not ideal. In actual work, the smoke and dust generated by the laser head processing comes from the instantaneous gasification of the plate on the workbench under the influence of the high concentrated energy of the laser beam, and the generated metal vapor condenses into small particles of metal dust when it encounters the surrounding cold air. At this time, the metal dust is mainly distributed near the workbench, and we hope that the suction negative pressure generated by the suction port can take away the metal dust. The actual situation is that due to the poor sealing performance of the machine tool itself, the gap between the lower part of the machine tool and the machine body is too large, the gap between the machine body and the ground is too large, and at the same time, the dust suction port is connected to the ground and to the ground. The distance between the discharge vehicles is relatively close, resulting in most of the suction airflow entering the machine tool from the gap between the machine body and the ground and being taken to the air purification dust collector by the dust collection system. Finally, the dust collection system is doing useless work .

Make the top cover of the machine tool shield. The top cover of the machine tool is also a crucial part of the dust collection system. Cutting gas is needed during laser head processing, and part of the cutting gas will carry metal dust and spread to the upper space of the workbench. This part of the dust is generally not easy to be carried by the dust collection system. Walk. At this time, the top cover of the machine tool will play the role of fixing the dust in the machine tool, and then under the influence of gravity, this part of the dust will eventually be taken out of the machine tool by the dust suction system.

Being able to implement the above design ideas can effectively improve the dust collection effect of the laser cutting machine tool. While creating value for customers, our machine tools are more in line with the concept of green and sustainable development.

Wuhan Huaxia Xingguang Intelligent Technology Co., Ltd.

Post time: 16-12-22